Cleansing, sorcery, atonement, freeing oneself from the power or control of another.

Also Called: Witches Sweets

The plant is mainly used nowadays as a tonic to the gallbladder to improve the flow of bile and ameliorate conditions such as gallbladder pain, gallstones and jaundice.

The bark and root bark are antiseptic, astringent, cholagogue, hepatic, purgative, refrigerant, stomachic and tonic.

It is especially useful in cases of jaundice, general debility and biliousness, but should be used with caution.

The flowers and the stem bark are anti-rheumatic.

The roots are astringent and antiseptic.

The roots have been pulverized in a little water and used to treat mouth ulcers.

A tea of the roots and stems has been used to treat stomach ulcers.

The root bark has also been used as a purgative and treatment for diarrhoea and is diaphoretic.

A tincture of the root bark has been used in the treatment of rheumatism, sciatica etc.

A tea made from the fruits is antipruritic, antiseptic, appetizer, astringent, diuretic, expectorant and laxative. It is also used as a febrifuge.

The fruit, or freshly pressed juice, is used in the treatment of liver and gall bladder problems, kidney stones, menstrual pains etc.

The leaves are astringent and antiscorbutic.

A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of coughs.

The plant (probably the inner bark) is used by homeopaths as a valuable remedy for kidney and liver insufficiency.

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