Associated with divination, music, poetry, wind magick, weather magick, teaching, and decision making.
Also used in rituals of death & dying to provide protection for the deceased.
The bark is alterative, astringent, cathartic, febrifuge and tonic. The fresh bark will cause vomiting, so use dried bark for all but emetic purposes.
A decoction of the dried bark is used to bathe swellings and inflammations, especially of the mouth and throat.
The powdered bark and the leaves have been used as an internal astringent and tonic, whilst the bark has also been used as an internal and external haemostatic against haemorrhage.
Boiling the inner bark in vinegar produces a useful wash to treat lice and a range of skin problems such as scabies and scabs.
The liquid can also be used as a toothwash.
The leaves are astringent, galactogogue and vermifuge. They are used to help reduce breast engorgement in nursing mothers.
A decoction of the leaves is used in folk remedies for treating cancer of the breast, duodenum, oesophagus, face, pylorus, pancreas, rectum, throat, tongue, and uterus.