Increases strength & stamina, repels witches, and provides invisibility from enemies.
The plant is emmenagogue and hepatic.
An infusion has been used to bring on a tardy menstruation and to treat diarrhoea.
The latex in the sap is used in the treatment of warts. It is also said to have anticancer activity.
The stem juice is a powerful hydrogogue and cathartic, it should be used with great caution since it can cause colic and tenesmus.
The gum has been used as a cure for the opium habit.
The leaves are applied as a poultice to inflammatory swellings.
An infusion of the leaves and roots is febrifuge and tonic.